Glossary of psychiatric Terms

Discussion in 'General Parenting Archives' started by EastCoastChris, Oct 14, 2002.

  1. EastCoastChris

    EastCoastChris New Member

    Thought this could be helpful. Plan to move it to archives.


    A



    abnormal psychology see psychopathology

    achievement tests tests that measure learned skills and knowledge in academic areas such as reading, writing, and mathematics

    acting out the process of expressing unconscious emotional conflicts or feelings via actions rather than words

    adaptive behavior everyday living skills (e.g., bathing, toileting, walking, talking, getting dressed, preparing a meal) that a person learns in the process of adapting to his or her surroundings and that are required for personal and social sufficiency

    affect describes observable behavior that represents the expression of an emotion

    agraphia loss of a pre-existing ability to express one's self through writing

    akinesia state of motor inhibition or reduced voluntary movement

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) an organization of alcoholics that uses group methods, such as inspirational-supportive techniques, to help rehabilitate chronic alcoholics

    alcoholism Excessive dependence on or addiction to alcohol, usually to the point that the person’s physical and mental health is threatened or harmed

    alienation the estrangement felt in a setting one views as foreign, unpredictable, or unacceptable

    amnesia loss of memory

    antidepressant any of a class of psychotherapeutic drugs used in the treatment of pathological depression

    antipsychotic any of a class of psychotherapeutic drugs used to treat psychosis, particularly schizophrenia

    anxiety the apprehensive anticipation of future danger or misfortune accompanied by an unpleasant mood or somatic symptoms of tension

    aphasia an impairment in the understanding or transmission of ideas by language in any of its forms (reading, writing, or speaking) that is due to injury or disease of the brain centers involved in language

    apperception perception as modified and enhanced by one's own emotions, memories, and biases

    apraxia inability to carry out previously learned skilled motor activities despite intact comprehension and motor function

    aptitude tests psychological tests used to assess innate potential for learning

    assertiveness training a technique sometimes used by therapists to help individuals become more confident and develop effective interpersonal skills

    ataxia partial or complete loss of coordination of voluntary muscular movement

    attention the ability to focus in a sustained manner on a particular stimulus or activity

    attitudes positive or negative reactions to people, objects, events and ideas

    aversion therapy a type of behavior therapy in which the response averts an aversive stimulus before it occurs

    aversive stimulus in instrumental conditioning, a stimulus such as an electric shock, which the animal does everything to avoid and nothing to attain


    B



    behavior modification a systematic method for substituting desirable responses and behaviors for undesirable ones

    behaviorism a theoretical outlook that emphasizes the role of environment and learning

    biofeedback a treatment method using monitoring instruments to "feed back" to patients physiological information they can learn to use to control what are usually involuntary bodily processes

    C



    catharsis the healthful release of ideas through "talking out" conscious material accompanied by an appropriate emotional reaction

    classical conditioning the process by which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response by association with another stimulus that already elicits the same response

    client-centered therapy type of psychotherapy based on the assumption that all people have an internal tendency to "self actualize", and this motivates and guides them toward positive, healthy growth

    cognition the mental processes by which knowledge is acquired

    cognitive pertaining to thinking, knowing, understanding or processing information

    cognitive dissonance refers to unpleasant feelings that occur whenever we experience inconsistency between attitudes or inconsistency between our attitudes and behavior

    cognitive therapy a therapy of the present that focuses on recognizing and altering negative and maladaptive thoughts and beliefs rather than identifying root causes of problems

    comorbidity the simultaneous appearance of two or more illnesses

    comprehensive developmental assessment an evaluation completed for a child of preschool age to determine the developmental status of the child in cognition, physical, communication, adaptive and self-help skills

    compulsion repetitive ritualistic behavior such as hand washing or ordering or a mental act such as praying or repeating words silently that aims to prevent or reduce distress or prevent some dreaded event or situation

    concrete thinking thinking characterized by immediate experience, rather than abstractions

    conservation a term developed by Piaget to describe the understanding that physical objects stay constant even if they change in shape or appearance

    contingency a relation between two events in which one is dependent upon another

    contingency contract in behavior modification, a written agreement between a student and adults stating what the consequences will be for specific behaviors

    contingency reinforcement in operant or instrumental conditioning, ensuring that desired behavior is followed by positive consequences and that undesired behavior is not rewarded

    control group a group to which the experimental manipulation is not applied

    convergent thinking thinking in which one tries to narrow down possibilities and reach the best solution to a problem

    coping mechanisms ways of adjusting to environmental stress without altering one's goals or purposes; includes both conscious and unconscious mechanisms

    correlation

    correlation coefficient a number that expresses both the size and the direction of a correlation

    counseling form of guidance in which a trained person offers advice or education about specific problems in living

    crisis intervention brief therapeutic approach used to ameliorate acute psychiatric emergencies

    criterion groups groups whose test performance sets the validity criterion for certain tests

    criterion-referenced test a test that measures how well an individual student performs compared to some established standard of performance (level of mastery)

    critical learning stage that time when a student who has mastered a concept or skill in one setting is ready to generalize what has been learned within other settings

    critical period specific period of early development during which an organism acquires certain patterns of behavior as a result of internal or external clues

    crystallized intelligence the repertoire of information, cognitive skills, and strategies acquired by the application of fluid intelligence to various fields See also fluid intelligence

    culture refers to the widely shared beliefs, customs, values and norms of a community that are socially transferred across generations


    D



    defense mechanism in psychoanalytic theory, a collective term for a number of reactions that try to ward off or lessen anxiety by various unconscious means; see also displacement, projection, rationalization, reaction formation, repression

    deinstitutionalization a movement intended to obtain better and less expensive care for chronically mentally ill patients in their own communities rather than at large, centralized hospitals

    delusions false beliefs that usually involve a misinterpretation of perceptions or experiences

    depersonalization an alteration in the perception or experience of the self so that one feels detached from, and as if one is an outside observer of, one's mental processes or body (e.g., feeling like one is in a dream)

    detachment a behavior pattern characterized by general aloofness in interpersonal contact

    developmental disability a chronic disability caused by a mental or physical impairment and resulting in severe limitations in self-help, communication, learning, mobility, or independent living

    diagnosis determination of the nature and extent of a specific disorder

    disinhibition Freedom to act according to one's inner drives or feelings, with less regard for restraints imposed by cultural norms

    disorder pathological condition of the mind or body

    disorientation confusion about the time of day, date, or season (time), where one is (place), or who one is (person). Confusion; impairment of awareness of time, place, and person (the position of the self in relation to other persons)

    dissociation a defense mechanism in which a person's identity, memories, ideas, feelings, or perceptions are separated from conscious awareness and cannot be recalled or experienced voluntarily

    distractibility inability to attend to the appropriate or relevant stimuli in a given situation

    distribution an arrangement of statistical data that exhibits the frequency of the occurrence of the values of a variable

    divergent thinking an aspect of creativity that is characterized by an ability to generate many possible unusual but appropriate solutions to standard types of questions

    double-blind technique a method for evaluating drug effects independent of the effects produced by the expectations of research participants (placebo effects) and of physicians. This is done by assigning patients to a drug group or a placebo group with both patients and staff members in ignorance of who is assigned to which group. See also placebo effect

    dyskinesia distortion of voluntary movements with involuntary muscular activity

    dyslexia impaired reading ability


    E



    echolalia a tendency, sometimes observed in autistic children, to persistently repeat (echo) the words and phrases of others

    elevated mood An exaggerated feeling of well-being, or euphoria or elation. A person with elevated mood may describe feeling "high," "ecstatic," "on top of the world," or "up in the clouds."

    emotional lability frequent mood changes

    encoding The process by which information is stored in memory

    endorphins a family of chemicals produced within the brain, whose chemical composition and effects are similar to pain-relieving opiates such as morphine

    ethnicity a distinct group of people recognized as a class based upon characteristics, such as religion, language, ancestry, culture, or national origin

    evaluation procedures used to determine whether a student is disabled and the nature of the special education and related services the student needs

    experiment a study in which the investigator manipulates one or more variables to determine their effect on the research participant’s response

    external validity the degree to which a study’s participants, stimuli, and procedures adequately reflect the world as it actually is

    extinction in classical conditioning, the weakening of the tendency of the conditioned stimulus to elicit the conditioned response by unreinforced presentations of the conditioned stimulus; in instrumental conditioning, a decline in the tendency to perform the instrumental response brought about by unreinforced occurrences of that response

    extroversion A state in which attention and energies are largely directed outward from the self as opposed to inward toward the self, as in introversion

    F



    factor analysis A statistical method for studying the interrelations among various tests, the object of which is to discover what the tests have in common and whether these communalities can be ascribed to one or several factors that run through all or some of these tests

    family therapy A general term for a number of therapies that treat the family or couple, operating on the assumption that the key to family or marital distress is not necessarily in the problems of any individual family member but is rather in the interrelationships within the family

    fine motor skills small muscle movements such as those involved in eye-hand coordination, reaching, grasping and manipulating objects

    flat affect a lack of emotional responsiveness

    fluid intelligence the ability, which is said to decline with age, to deal with essentially new problems; also see crystallized intelligence

    free association in psychoanalysis, having clients express their thoughts and feelings as they happen without censoring them

    functional assessment of behaviora way to systematically identify positive and negative behaviors by observing a student to develop behavior intervention strategies

    functional skills tasks and activities most often required in everyday life


    G



    gender stereotypes shared, typically inflexible beliefs about what men and women should do, how they should behave and what traits they have

    generalization the transfer of a learned response from one situation to others that are similar to the original

    gestalt therapy a theory and therapeutic method that emphasizes resolving psychological conflicts by means of techniques that heighten here-and-now awareness and an understanding of the interrelatedness of all things

    grandiosity an inflated appraisal of one's worth, power, knowledge, importance, or identity. When extreme, grandiosity may be of delusional proportions

    grade equivalent score refers to the level of test performance of an average student at that grade level, e.g., a score of 4.6 means that on a particular test, the student scored the same as other students in the 6th month of the 4th grade

    gross motor skills large muscle movements such as sitting, crawling, standing and walking

    group therapy psychotherapy of several persons at one time


    H




    hallucination a perceived experience that occurs in the absence of actual sensory stimulation

    hierarchy of needs Maslow's idea that our inborn needs are arranged in a sequence of stages from the most basic (primitive needs) that must be met first, to the least basic (human needs), that can be fulfilled only if basic needs have been satisfied

    holistic therapy emphasizes and deals with the "whole" person. It is based on the integration of the mind, body, emotions, will, and spiritual orientation. How the interplay of these aspects of a person affects happiness, self-esteem and personal relationships is the key

    hyperactivity; hyperkinesis excessive movement or restlessness often accompanied by inattention and impulsivity see Attention Deficit Disorder


    I



    impulsivity the tendency to react quickly and inappropriately to a situation rather than to take the time to consider alternatives and to choose carefully

    incongruence the extent of the disparity between one's self concept and one's actual personal experience

    insanity legal term indicating that a person cannot be held accountable for his/her actions because of mental illness

    intelligence according to Wecshler, the global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his or her environment

    intelligence tests psychological tests that measure general intellectual functioning

    intervention a method or strategy designed to change an individual's behavioral, medical, or health status

    IQ (intelligence quotient)a measure of intelligence obtained from an intelligence test and usually expressed as a standard score with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15 or 16 depending upon the test being used

    ideas of reference a characteristic of some mental disorders, notably schizophrenia, in which the individual incorrectly interprets casual incidents and external events as having direct reference to himself or herself

    ideation the process of thinking

    identification A defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, by which one patterns oneself after some other person. Identification plays a major role in the development of one's personality and specifically of the superego. To be differentiated from imitation or role modeling, which is a conscious process

    idiot savant a derogatory term for a savant

    illusion A misperception or misinterpretation of a real external stimulus, such as hearing the rustling of leaves as the sound of voices; also see hallucination

    impulsivity the tendency to react quickly and inappropriately to a situation rather than to take the time to consider alternatives and to choose carefully; also see Attention Deficit Disorder

    intellectualization A mental process in which the person engages in excessive abstract thinking to avoid confrontation with conflicts or disturbing feelings

    intelligence according to Wechsler, the global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his or her environment. See also IQ (Intelligence Quotient)

    internalization The process whereby moral codes are adopted by the child so that they control her behavior even when there are no external rewards or punishments

    internal validityThe degree to which a study is successful at measuring what it purports to measure, with all confounds removed and the dependent variable sensibly measured

    intervention a method or strategy designed to change an individual's behavioral, medical, or health status

    IQ (intelligence quotient) a measure of intelligence obtained from an intelligence test and usually expressed as a standard score with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15 or 16 depending upon the test being used

    intrinsic motivation motivation that seems inherent in an activity itself, as when we engage in an activity for its own sake or merely because it is fun

    introversion preoccupation with oneself and accompanying reduction of interest in the outside world; contrast to extroversion

    isolation a defense mechanism operating unconsciously central to obsessive-compulsive phenomena in which the affect is detached from an idea and rendered unconscious, leaving the conscious idea colorless and emotionally neutral


    L



    labile affect An affect type that indicates abnormal sudden rapid shifts in affect

    latent learning Learning that occurs without being manifested by performance

    learned helplessnessA condition in which a person attempts to establish and maintain contact with another by adopting a helpless, powerless stance

    learning a process based on experience that results in a relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge

    logical consequences events that follow behavior within a normal social environment

    long-term memorythe final phase of memory in which information storage may last from hours to a lifetime

    longitudinal study a study where the same individuals are observed at different points in time across the life span

    M



    magical thinking A conviction that thinking equates with doing. Occurs in dreams in children, in primitive peoples, and in patients under a variety of conditions. Characterized by lack of realistic relationship between cause and effect

    maladaptive referring to any mental activity or behavior that is dysfunctional or counterproductive with regard to a person's ability to cope effectively with the problems and stresses of life

    maturation the sequential unfolding of genetically programmed behavior and physical characteristics

    mean the average of all of the scores in a set of scores

    measure of central tendency a single number used to summarize an entire distribution of experimental results; also see mode, median, mean

    median the middle score within a set of scores such that half have lower scores and half have greater scores

    medical model a model that holds that underlying pathology is organic and that treatment should be conducted by physicians

    mental age (MA) a measure of mental development expressed in terms of the average mental ability at a given age

    mental retardation a condition occurring during the developmental period, characterized by below normal general intelligence and difficulty coping with the social demands of a person's environment; traditionally defined as an IQ score below 70 with impaired adaptive behavior

    metacognition a general term for knowledge about knowledge

    minimal brain dysfunction; minimal brain damage poorly defined terms applied to children who show behavioral characteristics (e.g., hyperactivity, distractibility) thought to be associated with brain damage

    minimum competency tests tests used by states and school districts to ensure that student promotions and graduations are based on mastery of certain basic skills

    minority a group within a country that differs in race, religion or national origin from the larger part of the population

    mnemonics Deliberate strategies for helping memory, many of which use imagery

    mode the score that occurs most frequently

    modeling demonstrating to others how to perform particular behaviors

    mood A pervasive and sustained emotion that colors the perception of the world. Common examples of mood include depression, elation, anger, and anxiety

    motivation the process that initiates, directs and sustains behavior in order to satisfy psychological and physiological needs

    motor skills learned skills involving physical dexterity or the coordination of muscular movements

    multiple intelligences a theory developed by Howard Gardner that postulates six essential, independent mental capacities: linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, and personal intelligence


    N



    negative reinforcement increasing the probability of a response by ending or withdrawing an unpleasant stimulus upon completion of the response

    neurodevelopmental disorder A disorder that stems from early brain abnormalities

    neuropsychological assessmentA specialized kind of psychological testing used to pinpoint the pattern of cognitive strengths and impairments that occurs with learning disabilities, aging, brain injuries, or diseases

    neurotransmitter a chemical, such as acetylcholine, that is released from the axon of one neuron and binds to a specific site in the dendrite of an adjacent neuron, triggering a nerve impulse

    neurosis an unconscious mental condition that causes anxiety that impairs normal functioning

    nondirective techniques A set of psychotherapy techniques devised by Carl Rogers. As far as possible, the counselor refrains from offering advice or interpretation but only tries to clarify the patient’s own feelings by echoing or restating what he says

    normal curvethe symmetrical bell-shaped curve of a normal distribution

    normal distribution a symmetrical bell shaped frequency distribution that represents the pattern in which many characteristics are dispersed in the population

    norm-referenced test a test that compares a student's score to the scores of a representative group of students the same age

    norms In intelligence testing, the scores taken from a large sample of the population against which an individual’s test scores are evaluated

    null hypothesis an assertion that the independent variable in a study will have no effect on the independent variable


    O



    obsession a recurrent and persistent thought, impulse, or image experienced as intrusive and distressing

    operant conditioning (instrumental conditioning) A process by which the results of the person's behavior determine whether the behavior is more or less likely to occur in the future

    orientation State of awareness of oneself and one’s surroundings in terms of time, place, and person

    overlearning practice that is continued beyond the point of mere mastery of memorized material or of a skill


    P



    panic attacks discrete periods of sudden onset of intense apprehension, fearfulness, or terror, often associated with feelings of impending doom

    panic is acute and extreme anxiety with accompanying physiologic symptoms

    pathological diseased

    perception the process by which the brain actively selects, organizes and interprets sensory information

    personality a distinctive constellation of relatively stable behaviors, thoughts, motives and emotions which characterize an individual

    percentile rank a derived test score that indicates what percentage of the norm group was exceeded by the individual's score, e.g., a percentile rank of 47 means the student scored better than did 47 percent (47 out of 100) students

    perception the ability to organize and interpret sensory information

    perceptual-motor skills such as paper and pencil use and eye-hand coordination

    perseveration persistently repeating an activity or behavior

    persona The role that one assumes or displays in public or society; one's public image or personality, as distinguished from the inner self

    personality enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself

    personality inventories paper-and-pencil tests of personality that ask questions about feelings, desires, or customary behavior

    placebo a chemically inert substance that produces real medical benefits because the patient believes it will help him or her

    placebo effect the actual medical or psychological benefits of a treatment administered to a patient who believes it has therapeutic powers even though it actually has none

    positive reinforcement the increased probability that a response will result after giving a reward or stimulus

    primary reinforcer a reinforcer used in operant conditioning that fulfils a basic physical need and does not depend on learning

    problem solving a systematic means of developing alternative solutions to problem situations and analyzing the possible effects of taking those alternatives

    projection a defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, in which what is emotionally unacceptable in the self is unconsciously rejected and attributed (projected) to others

    projective tests diagnostic tests in which the test taker "projects" some aspect of his or her personality in response to the presentation of ambiguous test materials

    psychoactive drugs chemical substances that are capable of altering mood, perception or thought; if used medically called a controlled substance

    psychoanalysis a theory of personality and a psychological treatment that emphasizes the recovery of unconscious conflicts, motives and defenses through the use of such techniques as free association and dream analysis

    psychodrama a therapy developed by Jacob L. Moreno that uses guided dramatic action to examine problems or issues raised by an individual or a group and to facilitate insight, personal growth, and integration on cognitive, affective, and behavioral levels

    psychopathology the study of the causes and nature of mental disease or abnormal behavior

    psychopharmacology the management of psychiatric illness using medication such as antidepressants and antipsychotics

    psychiatry the branch of medicine concerned with the prevention, cause, and treatment of mental disorders

    psychiatrist a medical doctor with additional training in diagnosing and treating mental illness

    psychological test a measuring device which is used to assess an individuals psychological status so that it can be compared to others

    psychologist a specialist in evaluating, diagnosing and treating individuals with social, emotional, behavioral, learning or developmental problems

    psychometrist a person trained in testing the psychological characteristics of students

    psychomotor relating to the physical activities associated with mental processes

    psychopathology the study of mental disorders or a mental disorder itself

    psychotherapy a collective term for all forms of treatment that use psychological rather than somatic methods

    psychotherapist a person trained to treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders

    psychotherapeutic drug a drug used to alter abnormal thinking, feelings, or behavior

    psychotropic medication medication that affects thought processes or feeling states

    punishment an event that immediately follows a behavior and results in that behavior being reduced or eliminated


    R



    rational-emotive therapy a directive form of psychotherapy developed by Albert Ellis that focuses on altering irrational beliefs about self and others in order to modify subsequent maladaptive emotional responses

    rationalization a defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, in which an individual attempts to justify or make consciously tolerable by plausible means, feelings or behavior that otherwise would be intolerable

    reaction formation a defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, in which the individual adopts feelings, ideas, and behaviors that are the opposites of impulses harbored either consciously or unconsciously

    reality therapy a counseling method developed by William Glasser that helps clients live and plan in the present, evaluate both what they want and the behaviors they are presently choosing, and then create a change-producing plan

    reasoning the determination of the conclusions that can be drawn from certain premises

    recall a process in which some item must be produced from memory

    redirection a non-punitive behavioral intervention strategy in which children are lead to adopt acceptable substitute behaviors for their inappropriate actions

    regression retreating to an earlier developmental level involving less mature behavior and responsibility

    rehearsal the act of purposely repeating or thinking about information in order to maintain it short term memory or transfer it to long term memory

    reinforcement any event or procedure that brings about learning or increases the frequency of a response, such as a reward

    relearning a method for measuring retention that compares the time required to relearn material with the time taken to initially learn it

    response the activity or inhibition of previous activity of an organism or any of its parts resulting from stimulation

    reward a stimulus administered to an organism following a correct or desired response that increases the probability of occurrence of the response

    Ritalin (methylphenidate hydrochloride) a central nervous system stimulant medication used to treat Attention Deficit Disorder

    reliability the ability of a test to give the same or similar scores time after time

    reliability coefficient the coefficient used in determining the consistency (repeatability) of tests

    repression a defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, that blocks unacceptable ideas, fantasies, feelings, or impulses from consciousness

    response the activity or inhibition of previous activity of an organism or any of its parts resulting from stimulation

    retrieval the process of searching for and finding some item in memory

    role playingtraining a person to function more effectively by having the person act out desired social behaviors under controlled conditions


    S



    sample a subset of a population selected by the investigator for study

    savant a mentally retarded person who has some remarkable talent that seems out of keeping with his or her low level of general intelligence

    school phobia a condition in which a child is anxious and afraid to go to school, often resulting from the child's overly dependent relationship with his or her parents

    secondary reinforcer a reinforcer that has acquired reinforcing properties by being associated with other (usually primary) reinforcers

    self-actualization according to Abraham Maslow and some other proponents of the humanistic approach to personality, the full realization of one’s potential

    self-concept a collection of beliefs that an individual has about himself which may or may not be realistic and may not be shared by others

    sensation the process through which the senses detect sensory stimuli and transmit them to the brain without interpretation

    sensation seeking a predisposition to seek novel experiences, look for thrills and adventure, and be highly susceptible to boredom

    separation anxiety the emotional distress that is shown by many infants when they are separated from their primary care giver

    shaping gradually molding responses to a final desired pattern by reinforcing successive approximations of it

    short-term memory memory that retains information for only a short period without rehearsal

    social skills training a systematic way to teach adaptive social behavior that includes assessing skills, modeling, behavioral rehearsal, and role playing

    socialization the process whereby the child learns social norms and roles by observing and imitating parents, peers and other role models in their social environment

    social learning theory a theoretical approach to socialization and personality that stresses learning by observing others who serve as models and who show the child whether a response he or she already knows should or should not be performed

    social phobia A marked and persistent fear of one or more social or performance situations in which the person is exposed to unfamiliar people or to possible scrutiny by others

    socially maladjusted violating laws or community standards but conforming to standards of some social subgroup, such as a gang

    somatic pertaining to or characteristic of the body

    standard score a derived score that shows how far a given score is above or below the average score of the norm group

    standard deviation a measure of the amount by which an individual test score differs from the mean score

    standardized tests assessment instruments that include precise instructions for administering and scoring, and that meet certain validity and reliability criteria

    standardization group the group against which an individual’s test score is evaluated

    statistics The process of quantitatively describing, analyzing, and making inferences about numerical data

    stimulus an agent, such as an environmental change, that serves to elicit a response

    storage the maintenance of encoded material in memory over time

    stress a pattern of specific and non-specific response that the organism makes when its ability to cope with the environment is compromised

    stressor any life event or life change that may be associated temporally with the onset, occurrence, or exacerbation of a mental disorder

    suppression the conscious effort to control and conceal unacceptable impulses, thoughts, feelings, or acts

    symptom a subjective manifestation of a pathological condition that is reported by the affected individual

    syndrome a grouping of signs and symptoms, based on their frequent occurrence together, that may suggest a common underlying disease or condition

    systematic desensitization a behavior therapy procedure used to modify behaviors associated with phobias by creating a hierarchy of anxiety-producing stimuli, and gradually presenting the stimuli to the individual until they no longer produce anxiety


    T



    task analysis reducing complex tasks to their simpler parts so that they can be taught more easily

    time out a short period of social isolation during which a student cannot receive attention or earn rewards

    taxonomy a classification system

    test profile a graphical representation of an individual’s performance on several components of a test; often used to describe a person’s pattern of abilities or traits

    test-retest reliability measure of the correlation between scores of the same people on the same test on the same test given on two different occasions

    tic an involuntary, sudden, rapid, recurrent, stereotyped motor movement or vocalization

    token economy a behavior modification method, typically used in hospitals or other institutional settings, in which targeted responses are reinforced with tokens that can be exchanged for desirable items

    U




    unconscious according to Freud, mental processes such as motives, desires and memories that are not usually subject to awareness but exert a significant effect on behavior




    V



    validity in reference to tests, the extent to which a test measures what it is suppose to measure

    variability the degree to which scores in a frequency distribution depart from the central value

    variable a quantity that may assume any one of a set of values

    variance a measure of the variability of a frequency distribution
     
  2. EastCoastChris

    EastCoastChris New Member

    [ A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z ]

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    A
    abreaction- An emotional release or discharge after recalling a painful experience that has been repressed because it was not consciously tolerable. Often the release is surprising to the individual experiencing it because of it's intensity and the circumstances surrounding its onset. A therapeutic effect sometimes occurs through partial or repeated discharge of the painful affect.

    abstract attitude- (categorical attitude) This is a type of thinking that includes voluntarily shifting one's mind set from a specific aspect of a situation to the general aspect; It involves keeping in mind different simultaneous aspects of a situation while grasping the essentials of the situation. It can involve breaking a situation down into its parts and isolating them voluntarily; planning ahead ideationally; and/or thinking or performing symbolically. A characteristic of many psychiatric disorders is the person's inability to assume the abstract attitude or to shift readily from the concrete to the abstract and back again as demanded by circumstances.

    abulia- A lack of will or motivation which is often expressed as inability to make decisions or set goals. Often, the reduction in impulse to action and thought is coupled with an indifference or lack of concern about the consequences of action.

    acalculia- The loss of a previously possessed ability to engage in arithmetic calculation.

    acculturation- difficulty A problem stemming from an inability to appropriately adapt to a different culture or environment. The problem is not based on any coexisting mental disorder.

    acetylcholine- A neurotransmitter in the brain, which helps to regulate memory, and in the peripheral nervous system, where it affects the actions of skeletal and smooth muscle.

    acting out- This is the process of expressing unconscious emotional conflicts or feelings via actions rather than words. The person is not consciously aware of the meaning or etiology of such acts. Acting out may be harmful or, in controlled situations, therapeutic (e.g., children's play therapy).

    actualization- The realization of one's full potential - intellectual, psychological, physical, etc.

    adiadochokinesia- The inability to perform rapid alternating movements of one or more of the extremities. This task is sometimes requested by physicians of patients during physical examinations to determine if there exists neurological problems.

    adrenergic- This refers to neuronal or neurologic activity caused by neurotransmitters such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine.

    affect- This word is used to described observable behavior that represents the expression of a subjectively experienced feeling state (emotion). Common examples of affect are sadness, fear, joy, and anger. The normal range of expressed affect varies considerably between different cultures and even within the same culture. Types of affect include: euthymic, irritable, constricted; blunted; flat; inappropriate, and labile.

    affective disorders- Refers to disorders of mood. Examples would include Major Depressive Disorder, Dysthymia, Depressive Disorder, N.O.S., Adjustment Disorder with Depressed Mood, Bipolar Disorder...

    age-associated memory impairment (AAMI) The mild disturbance in memory function that occurs normally with aging; benign senescent forgetfulness. Such lapses in memory are lately humorously referred to as representing "a senior moment".

    agitation (psychomotor agitation)- Excessive motor activity that accompanies and is associated with a feeling of inner tension. The activity is usually nonproductive and repetitious and consists of such behavior as pacing, fidgeting, wringing of the hands, pulling of clothes, and inability to sit still.

    agnosia- Failure to recognize or identify objects despite intact sensory function; This may be seen in dementia of various types. An example would be the failure of someone to recognize a paper clip placed in their hand while keeping their eyes closed.

    agonist medication- A chemical entity that is not naturally occuring within the body which acts upon a receptor and is capable of producing the maximal effect that can be produced by stimulating that receptor. A partial agonist is capable only of producing less than the maximal effect even when given in a concentration sufficient to bind with all available receptors.

    agonist/antagonist medication -A chemical entity that is not naturally occuring within the body which acts on a family of receptors (such as mu, delta, and kappa opiate receptors) in such a fashion that it is an agonist or partial agonist on one type of receptor while at the same time it is also an antagonist on another different receptor.

    agoraphobia- Anxiety about being in places or situations in which escape might be difficut or embarrassing or in which help may not be available should a panic attack occur. The fears typically relate to venturing into the open, of leaving the familiar setting of one's home, or of being in a crowd, standing in line, or traveling in a car or train. Although agoraphobia usually occurs as a part of panic disorder, agoraphobia without a history of panic disorder has been described as also occuring without other disorders.

    agraphia- The loss of a pre-existing ability to express one's self through the act of writing.

    akathisia -Complaints of restlessness accompanied by movements such as fidgeting of the legs, rocking from foot to foot, pacing, or inability to sit or stand. Symptoms can develop within a few weeks of starting or raising the dose of traditional neuroleptic medications or of reducing the dose of medication used to treat extrapyramidal symptoms. akathisia is a state of motor restlessness ranging from a feeling of inner disquiet to inability to sit still or lie quietly.

    akinesia- A state of motor inhibition or reduced voluntary movement.

    akinetic mutism- A state of apparent alertness with following eye movements but no speech or voluntary motor responses.

    alexia- Loss of a previously intact ability to grasp the meaning of written or printed words and sentences.

    alexithymia- A disturbance in affective and cognitive function that can be present in an assortment of diagnostic entities. Is common in psychosomatic disorders, addictive disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The chief manifestations are difficulty in describing or recognizing one's own emotions, a limited fantasy life, and general constriction in affective life.

    algophobia- Fear of pain.

    alienation- The estrangement felt in a setting one views as foreign, unpredictable, or unacceptable. For example, in depersonalization phenomena, feelings of unreality or strangeness produce a sense of alienation from one's self or environment.

    alloplastic- Referring to adaptation by means of altering the external environment. This can be contrasted to autoplastic, which refers to the alteration of one's own behavior and responses.

    alogia- An impoverishment in thinking that is inferred from observing speech and language behavior. There may be brief and concrete replies to questions and restriction in the amount of spontaneous speech (poverty of speech). Sometimes the speech is adequate in amount but conveys little information because it is overconcrete, overabstract, repetitive, or stereotyped (poverty of content).

    ambivalence- The coexistence of contradictory emotions, attitudes, ideas, or desires with respect to a particular person, object, or situation. Ordinarily, the ambivalence is not fully conscious and suggests psychopathology only when present in an extreme form.

    amentia- Subnormal development of the mind, with particular reference to intellectual capacities; a type of severe mental retardation.

    amimia- A disorder of language characterized by an inability to make gestures or to understand the significance of gestures.

    amines- Organic compounds containing the amino group. Amines such as epinephrine and norepinephrine are significant because they function as neurotransmitters.

    amnesia- Loss of memory. Types of amnesia include: anterograde Loss of memory of events that occur after the onset of the etiological condition or agent. retrograde Loss of memory of events that occurred before the onset of the etiological condition or agent.

    amok- A culture specific syndrome from Malay involving acute indiscriminate homicidal mania .

    amygdala- This is a structure of the brain which is part of the basal ganglia located on the roof of the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle at the inferior end of the caudate nucleus. It is a structure in the forebrain that is an important component of the limbic system.

    amyloid -Any one of various complex proteins that are deposited in tissues in different disease processes. These proteins have an affinity for Congo red dye. In neuropsychiatry, of particular interest are the beta-amyloid (A4) protein, which is the major component of the characteristic senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease, and the amyloid precursor protein (APP).

    anaclitic- In psychoanalytic terminology, dependence of the infant on the mother or mother substitute for a sense of well-being. This is considered normal behavior in childhood, but pathologic in later years.

    anal stage -The period of pregenital psychosexual development, usually from 1 to 3 years, in which the child has particular interest and concern with the process of defecation and the sensations connected with the anus. The pleasurable part of the experience is termed anal eroticism.

    anamnesis- The developmental history of a patient and of his or her illness, especially recollections.

    anankastic personality- Synonym for obsessive-compulsive personality.

    androgyny- A combination of male and female characteristics in one person.

    anhedonia -Inability to experience pleasure from activities that usually produce pleasurable feelings. Contrast with hedonism.

    anima- In Jungian psychology, a person's inner being as opposed to the character or persona presented to the world. Further, the anima may be the more feminine "soul" or inner self of a man, and the animus the more masculine soul of a woman.

    anomie- Apathy, alienation, and personal distress resulting from the loss of goals previously valued. Emile Durkheim popularized this term when he listed it as a principal reason for suicide.

    anosognosia- The apparent unawareness of or failure to recognize one's own functional defect (e.g., hemiplegia, hemianopsia).

    antagonist medication- A chemical entity that is not naturally occuring within the body which occupies a receptor, produces no physiologic effects, and prevents endogenous and exogenous chemicals from producing an effect on that receptor.

    anxiety- The apprehensive anticipation of future danger or misfortune accompanied by a feeling of dysphoria or somatic symptoms of tension. The focus of anticipated danger may be internal or external. Anxiety is often distinguished from fear in that fear is a more appropriate word to use when there exists threat or danger in the real world. Anxiety is reflective more of a threat that is not apparent or imminent in the real world, at least not to the experienced degree.

    apathy- Lack of feeling, emotion, interest, or concern.

    aphasia- An impairment in the understanding or transmission of ideas by language in any of its forms--reading, writing, or speaking--that is due to injury or disease of the brain centers involved in language.

    anomic or amnestic aphasia -Loss of the ability to name objects.

    aphonia- An inability to produce speech sounds that require the use of the larynx that is not due to a lesion in the central nervous system.

    apperception- Perception as modified and enhanced by one's own emotions, memories, and biases.

    apraxia -Inability to carry out previously learned skilled motor activities despite intact comprehension and motor function; this may be seen in dementia.

    assimilation- A Piagetian term describing a person's ability to comprehend and integrate new experiences.

    astereognosis- Inability to recognize familiar objects by touch that cannot be explained by a defect of elementary tactile sensation.

    ataxia- Partial or complete loss of coordination of voluntary muscular movement.

    attention- The ability to focus in a sustained manner on a particular stimulus or activity. A disturbance in attention may be manifested by easy distractibility or difficulty in finishing tasks or in concentrating on work

    auditory hallucination- A hallucination involving the perception of sound, most commonly of voices. Some clinicians and investigators would not include those experiences perceived as coming from inside the head and would instead limit the concept of true auditory hallucinations to those sounds whose source is perceived as being external.

    aura- A premonitory, subjective brief sensation (e.g., a flash of light) that warns of an impending headache or convulsion. The nature of the sensation depends on the brain area in which the attack begins. Seen in migraine and epilepsy.

    autoeroticism- Sensual self-gratification. Characteristic of, but not limited to, an early stage of emotional development. Includes satisfactions derived from genital play, masturbation, fantasy, and oral, anal, and visual sources.

    automatism- Automatic and apparently undirected nonpurposeful behavior that is not consciously controlled. Seen in psychomotor epilepsy.

    autoplastic- Referring to adaptation by changing the self.

    autotopagnosia- Inability to localize and name the parts of one's own body. finger agnosia would be autotopagnosia restricted to the fingers.

    avolition- An inability to initiate and persist in goal-directed activities. When severe enough to be considered pathological, avolition is pervasive and prevents the person from completing many different types of activities (e.g., work, intellectual pursuits, self-care).

    B
    basal ganglia-Clusters of neurons located deep in the brain; they include the caudate nucleus and the putamen (corpus striatum), the globus pallidus, the subthalamic nucleus, and the substantia nigra. The basal ganglia appear to be involved in higher-order aspects of motor control, such as planning and execution of complex motor activity and the speed of movements. Lesions of the basal ganglia produce various types of involuntary movements such as athetosis, chorea, dystonia, and tremor. The basal ganglia are involved also in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and tardive dyskinesia. The internal capsule, containing all the fibers that ascend to or descend from the cortex, runs through the basal ganglia and separates them from the thalamus.

    bestiality- Zoophilia; sexual relations between a human being and an animal. See also paraphilia.

    beta-blocker- An agent that inhibits the action of beta-adrenergic receptors, which modulate cardiac functions, respiratory functions, and the dilation of blood vessels. Beta-blockers are of value in the treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, and migraine. In psychiatry, they have been used in the treatment of aggression and violence, anxiety-related tremors and lithium-induced tremors, neuroleptic-induced akathisia, social phobias, panic states, and alcohol withdrawal.

    bizarre delusion- A delusion that involves a phenomenon that the person's culture would regard as totally implausible.

    blind spot- Visual scotoma, a circumscribed area of blindness or impaired vision in the visual field; by extension, an area of the personality of which the subject is unaware, typically because recognition of this area would cause painful emotions.

    blocking- A sudden obstruction or interruption in spontaneous flow of thinking or speaking, perceived as an absence or deprivation of thought.

    blunted affect- An affect type that represents significant reduction in the intensity of emotional expression

    body image- One's sense of the self and one's body.

    bradykinesia- Neurologic condition characterized by a generalized slowness of motor activity.

    Broca's aphasia- Loss of the ability to comprehend language coupled with production of inappropriate language.

    bruxism- Grinding of the teeth, occurs unconsciously while awake or during stage 2 sleep. May be secondary to anxiety, tension, or dental problems.

    C

    Capgras' syndrome- The delusion that others, or the self, have been replaced by imposters. It typically follows the development of negative feelings toward the other person that the subject cannot accept and attributes, instead, to the imposter. The syndrome has been reported in paranoid schizophrenia and, even more frequently, in organic brain disease.

    catalepsy- Waxy flexibility--rigid maintenance of a body position over an extended period of time.

    cataplexy- Episodes of sudden bilateral loss of muscle tone resulting in the individual collapsing, often in association with intense emotions such as laughter, anger, fear, or surprise.

    catatonic behavior- Marked motor abnormalities including motoric immobility (i.e., catalepsy or stupor), certain types of excessive motor activity (apparently purposeless agitation not influenced by external stimuli), extreme negativism (apparent motiveless resistance to instructions or attempts to be moved) or mutism, posturing or stereotyped movements, and echolalia or echopraxia

    catharsis- The healthful (therapeutic) release of ideas through "talking out" conscious material accompanied by an appropriate emotional reaction. Also, the release into awareness of repressed ("forgotten") material from the unconscious. See also repression.

    cathexis- Attachment, conscious or unconscious, of emotional feeling and significance to an idea, an object, or, most commonly, a person.

    causalgia- A sensation of intense pain of either organic or psychological origin.

    cerea flexibilitas- The "waxy flexibility" often present in catatonic schizophrenia in which the patient's arm or leg remains in the position in which it is placed.

    circumstantiality- Pattern of speech that is indirect and delayed in reaching its goal because of excessive or irrelevant detail or parenthetical remarks. The speaker does not lose the point, as is characteristic of loosening of associations, and clauses remain logically connected, but to the listener it seems that the end will never be reached.

    clanging- A type of thinking in which the sound of a word, rather than its meaning, gives the direction to subsequent associations.

    climacteric- Menopausal period in women. Sometimes used to refer to the corresponding age period in men. Also called involutional period.

    cognitive- Pertaining to thoughts or thinking. Cognitive disorders are disorders of thinking, for example, schizophrenia.

    comorbidity- The simultaneous appearance of two or more illnesses, such as the co-occurrence of schizophrenia and substance abuse or of alcohol dependence and depression. The association may reflect a causal relationship between one disorder and another or an underlying vulnerability to both disorders. Also, the appearance of the illnesses may be unrelated to any common etiology or vulnerability.

    compensation- A defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, by which one attempts to make up for real or fancied deficiencies. Also a conscious process in which one strives to make up for real or imagined defects of physique, performance skills, or psychological attributes. The two types frequently merge. See also overcompensation.

    compulsion- Repetitive ritualistic behavior such as hand washing or ordering or a mental act such as praying or repeating words silently that aims to prevent or reduce distress or prevent some dreaded event or situation. The person feels driven to perform such actions in response to an obsession or according to rules that must be applied rigidly, even though the behaviors are recognized to be excessive or unreasonable.

    conative- Pertains to one's basic strivings as expressed in behavior and actions

    concrete thinking- Thinking characterized by immediate experience, rather than abstractions. It may occur as a primary, developmental defect, or it may develop secondary to organic brain disease or schizophrenia.

    condensation- A psychological process, often present in dreams, in which two or more concepts are fused so that a single symbol represents the multiple components.

    confabulation- Fabrication of stories in response to questions about situations or events that are not recalled.

    confrontation- A communication that deliberately pressures or invites another to self-examine some aspect of behavior in which there is a discrepancy between self-reported and observed behavior.

    constricted affect- Affect type that represents mild reduction in the range and intensity of emotional expression.

    constructional apraxia- An acquired difficulty in drawing two-dimensional objects or forms, or in producing or copying three-dimensional arrangements of forms or shapes.

    contingency reinforcement- In operant or instrumental conditioning, ensuring that desired behavior is followed by positive consequences and that undesired behavior is not rewarded.

    conversion- A defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, by which intrapsychic conflicts that would otherwise give rise to anxiety are instead given symbolic external expression. The repressed ideas or impulses, and the psychological defenses against them, are converted into a variety of somatic symptoms. These may include such symptoms as paralysis, pain, or loss of sensory function.

    coping mechanisms- Ways of adjusting to environmental stress without altering one's goals or purposes; includes both conscious and unconscious mechanisms.

    coprophagia- Eating of filth or feces.

    counterphobia- Deliberately seeking out and exposing onself to, rather than avoiding, the object or situation that is consciously or unconsciously feared.

    countertransference- The therapist's emotional reactions to the patient that are based on the therapist's unconscious needs and conflicts, as distinguished from his or her conscious responses to the patient's behavior. Countertransference may interfere with the therapist's ability to understand the patient and may adversely affect the therapeutic technique. Currently, there is emphasis on the positive aspects of countertransference and its use as a guide to a more empathic understanding of the patient.

    cretinism- A type of mental retardation and bodily malformation caused by severe, uncorrected thyroid deficiency in infancy and early childhood.

    cri du chat- A type of mental retardation. The name is derived from a catlike cry emitted by children with this disorder, which is caused by partial deletion of chromosome 5.

    conversion symptom- A loss of, or alteration in, voluntary motor or sensory functioning suggesting a neurological or general medical condition. Psychological factors are judged to be associated with the development of the symptom, and the symptom is not fully explained by a neurological or general medical condition or the direct effects of a substance. The symptom is not intentionally produced or feigned and is not culturally sanctioned.

    culture-specific syndromes-- Forms of disturbed behavior specific to certain cultural systems that do not conform to western nosologic entities. Some commonly cited syndromes are the following: amok; koro; latah; piblokto, and windigo.

    D

    Da Costa's syndrome- Neurocirculatory asthenia; "soldier's heart"; a functional disorder of the circulatory system that is usually a part of an anxiety state or secondary to hyperventilation.

    decompensation -The deterioration of existing defenses, leading to an exacerbation of pathological behavior.

    defense mechanism -Automatic psychological process that protects the individual against anxiety and from awareness of internal or external stressors or dangers. Defense mechanisms mediate the individual's reaction to emotional conflicts and to external stressors. Some defense mechanisms (e.g., projection, splitting, and acting out) are almost invariably maladaptive. Others, such as suppression and denial, may be either maladaptive or adaptive, depending on their severity, their inflexibility, and the context in which they occur.

    déjà vu- A paramnesia consisting of the sensation or illusion that one is seeing what one has seen before

    delusion- A false belief based on incorrect inference about external reality that is firmly sustained despite what almost everyone else believes and despite what constitutes incontrovertible and obvious proof or evidence to the contrary. The belief is not one ordinarily accepted by other members of the person's culture or subculture (e.g., it is not an article of religious faith). When a false belief involves a value judgment, it is regarded as a delusion only when the judgment is so extreme as to defy credibility. Delusional conviction occurs on a continuum and can sometimes be inferred from an individual's behavior. It is often difficult to distinguish between a delusion and an overvalued idea (in which case the individual has an unreasonable belief or idea but does not hold it as firmly as is the case with a delusion). Delusions are subdivided according to their content. Some of the more common types are: bizarre; delusional jealousy; grandiose; delusion of reference; persecutory; somatic; thought broadcasting; thought insertion.

    delusional- jealousy The delusion that one's sexual partner is unfaithful. erotomanic A delusion that another person, usually of higher status, is in love with the individual.

    delusion of reference- A delusion whose theme is that events, objects, or other persons in one's immediate environment have a particular and unusual significance. These delusions are usually of a negative or pejorative nature, but also may be grandiose in content. This differs from an idea of reference, in which the false belief is not as firmly held nor as fully organized into a true belief.

    denial- A defense mechanism where certain information is not accessed by the conscious mind. Denial is related to repression, a similar defense mechanism, but denial is more pronounced or intense. Denial involves some impairment of reality. Denial would be operating (as an example) if a cardiac patient who has been warned about the potential fatal outcome of engaging in heavy work, decides to start building a wall of heavy stones.

    depersonalization- An alteration in the perception or experience of the self so that one feels detached from, and as if one is an outside observer of, one's mental processes or body (e.g., feeling like one is in a dream).

    derailment ("loosening of associations")- A pattern of speech in which a person's ideas slip off one track onto another that is completely unrelated or only obliquely related. In moving from one sentence or clause to another, the person shifts the topic idiosyncratically from one frame of reference to another and things may be said in juxtaposition that lack a meaningful relationship. This disturbance occurs between clauses, in contrast to incoherence, in which the disturbance is within clauses. An occasional change of topic without warning or obvious connection does not constitute derailment.

    derealization- An alteration in the perception or experience of the external world so that it seems strange or unreal (e.g., people may seem unfamiliar or mechanical).

    dereistic- Mental activity that is not in accordance with reality, logic, or experience.

    detachment- A behavior pattern characterized by general aloofness in interpersonal contact; may include intellectualization, denial, and superficiality.

    diplopia- Double vision due to paralysis of the ocular muscles; seen in inhalant intoxication and other conditions affecting the oculomotor nerve.

    disconnection syndrome- Term coined by Norman Geschwind (1926¾1984) to describe the interruption of information transferred from one brain region to another.

    disinhibition- Freedom to act according to one's inner drives or feelings, with less regard for restraints imposed by cultural norms or one's superego; removal of an inhibitory, constraining, or limiting influence, as in the escape from higher cortical control in neurologic injury, or in uncontrolled firing of impulses, as when a drug interferes with the usual limiting or inhibiting action of GABA within the central nervous system.

    disorientation- Confusion about the time of day, date, or season (time), where one is (place), or who one is (person).

    dysphoric mood- An unpleasant mood, such as sadness, anxiety, or irritability.

    displacement- A defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, in which emotions, ideas, or wishes are transferred from their original object to a more acceptable substitute; often used to allay anxiety.

    dissociation -A disruption in the usually integrated functions of consciousness, memory, identity, or perception of the environment. The disturbance may be sudden or gradual, transient or chronic.

    distractibility- The inability to maintain attention, that is, the shifting from one area or topic to another with minimal provocation, or attention being drawn too frequently to unimportant or irrelevant external stimuli.

    double bind- Interaction in which one person demands a response to a message containing mutually contradictory signals, while the other person is unable either to comment on the incongruity or to escape from the situation.

    drive- Basic urge, instinct, motivation; a term used to avoid confusion with the more purely biological concept of instinct.

    dyad- A two-person relationship, such as the therapeutic relationship between doctor and patient in individual psychotherapy.

    dysarthria- Imperfect articulation of speech due to disturbances of muscular control or incoordination.

    dysgeusia- Perversion of the sense of taste.

    dyskinesia- Distortion of voluntary movements with involuntary muscular activity.

    dyslexia- Inability or difficulty in reading, including word-blindness and a tendency to reverse letters and words in reading and writing.

    dyssomnia- Primary disorders of sleep or wakefulness characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia as the major presenting symptom. Dyssomnias are disorders of the amount, quality, or timing of sleep.

    dystonia- Disordered tonicity of muscles.

    E

    echolalia- The pathological, parrotlike, and apparently senseless repetition (echoing) of a word or phrase just spoken by another person. echolalia Parrot-like repetition of overheard words or fragments of speech.

    echopraxia- Repetition by imitation of the movements of another. The action is not a willed or voluntary one and has a semiautomatic and uncontrollable quality.

    ego -In psychoanalytic theory, one of the three major divisions in the model of the psychic apparatus, the others being the id and the superego. The ego represents the sum of certain mental mechanisms, such as perception and memory, and specific defense mechanisms. It serves to mediate between the demands of primitive instinctual drives (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions (the superego), and of reality. The compromises between these forces achieved by the ego tend to resolve intrapsychic conflict and serve an adaptive and executive function. Psychiatric usage of the term should not be confused with common usage, which connotes self-love or selfishness.

    ego ideal The part of the personality that comprises the aims and goals for the self; usually refers to the conscious or unconscious emulation of significant figures with whom one has identified. The ego ideal emphasizes what one should be or do in contrast to what one should not be or not do.

    ego-dystonic Referring to aspects of a person's behavior, thoughts, and attitudes that are viewed by the self as repugnant or inconsistent with the total personality.

    eidetic image Unusually vivid and apparently exact mental image; may be a memory, fantasy, or dream.

    elaboration An unconscious process consisting of expansion and embellishment of detail, especially with reference to a symbol or representation in a dream.

    elevated mood An exaggerated feeling of well-being, or euphoria or elation. A person with elevated mood may describe feeling "high," "ecstatic," "on top of the world," or "up in the clouds."

    engram A memory trace; a neurophysiological process that accounts for persistence of memory

    epigenesis Originally from the Greek "epi" (on, upon, on top of) and "genesis" (origin); the theory that the embryo is not preformed in the ovum or the sperm, but that it develops gradually by the successive formation of new parts. The concept has been extended to other areas of medicine, with different shades of meaning. Some of the other meanings are as follows: 1. Any change in an organism that is due to outside influences rather than to genetically determined ones. 2. The occurrence of secondary symptoms as a result of disease. 3. Developmental factors, and specifically the gene-environment interactions, that contribute to development. 4. The appearance of new functions that are not predictable on the basis of knowledge of the part-processes that have been combined. 5. The appearance of specific features at each stage of development, such as the different goals and risks that Erikson described for the eight stages of human life (trust vs. mistrust, autonomy vs. doubt, etc.). The life cycle theory adheres to the epigenetic principle in that each stage of development is characterized by crises or challenges that must be satisfactorily resolved if development is to proceed normally.

    ethnology A science that concerns itself with the division of human beings into races and their origin, distribution, relations, and characteristics.

    euthymic Mood in the "normal" range, which implies the absence of depressed or elevated mood.

    expansive mood Lack of restraint in expressing one's feelings, frequently with an overvaluation of one's significance or importance. irritable Easily annoyed and provoked to anger.

    extinction The weakening of a reinforced operant response as a result of ceasing reinforcement. See also operant conditioning. Also, the elimination of a conditioned response by repeated presentations of a conditioned stimulus without the unconditioned stimulus. See also respondent conditioning.

    extraversion A state in which attention and energies are largely directed outward from the self as opposed to inward toward the self, as in introversion.

    F

    fantasy An imagined sequence of events or mental images (e.g., daydreams) that serves to express unconscious conflicts, to gratify unconscious wishes, or to prepare for anticipated future events.

    flashback A recurrence of a memory, feeling, or perceptual experience from the past.

    flat affect An affect type that indicates the absence of signs of affective expression.

    flight of ideas A nearly continuous flow of accelerated speech with abrupt changes from topic to topic that are usually based on understandable associations, distracting stimuli, or plays on words. When severe, speech may be disorganized and incoherent.

    flooding (implosion) A behavior therapy procedure for phobias and other problems involving maladaptive anxiety, in which anxiety producers are presented in intense forms, either in imagination or in real life. The presentations, which act as desensitizers, are continued until the stimuli no longer produce disabling anxiety.

    folie à deux A shared psychotic disorder between 2 people, usually people who are mutually dependent upon each other.

    formal thought disorder An inexact term referring to a disturbance in the form of thinking rather than to abnormality of content. See blocking; loosening of associations; poverty of speech.

    formication The tactile hallucination or illusion that insects are crawling on the body or under the skin.

    fragmentation Separation into different parts, or preventing their integration, or detaching one or more parts from the rest. A fear of fragmentation of the personality, also known as disintegration anxiety, is often observed in patients whenever they are exposed to repetitions of earlier experiences that interfered with development of the self. This fear may be expressed as feelings of falling apart, as a loss of identity, or as a fear of impending loss of one's vitality and of psychological depletion.

    free association In psychoanalytic therapy, spontaneous, uncensored verbalization by the patient of whatever comes to mind.

    frotteurism One of the paraphilias, consisting of recurrent, intense sexual urges involving touching and rubbing against a nonconsenting person; common sites in which such activities take place are crowded trains, buses, and elevators. Fondling the victim may be part of the condition and is called toucherism.

    fusion The union and integration of the instincts and drives so that they complement each other and help the organism to deal effectively with both internal needs and external demands.

    G

    Gegenhalten "Active" resistance to passive movement of the extremities that does not appear to be under voluntary control.

    globus hystericus The disturbing sensation of a lump in the throat.

    glossolalia Gibberish-like speech or "speaking in tongues."

    gender dysphoria A persistent aversion toward some or all of those physical characteristics or social roles that connote one's own biological sex.

    gender identity A person's inner conviction of being male or female.

    gender role Attitudes, patterns of behavior, and personality attributes defined by the culture in which the person lives as stereotypically "masculine" or "feminine" social roles.

    grandiosity An inflated appraisal of one's worth, power, knowledge, importance, or identity. When extreme, grandiosity may be of delusional proportions.

    grandiose delusion A delusion of inflated worth, power, knowledge, identity, or special relationship to a deity or famous person.

    gustatory hallucination A hallucination involving the perception of taste (usually unpleasant).

    H

    hallucination A sensory perception that has the compelling sense of reality of a true perception but that occurs without external stimulation of the relevant sensory organ. Hallucinations should be distinguished from illusions, in which an actual external stimulus is misperceived or misinterpreted. The person may or may not have insight into the fact that he or she is having a hallucination. One person with auditory hallucinations may recognize that he or she is having a false sensory experience, whereas another may be convinced that the source of the sensory experience has an independent physical reality. The term hallucination is not ordinarily applied to the false perceptions that occur during dreaming, while falling asleep (hypnagogic), or when awakening (hypnopompic). Transient hallucinatory experiences may occur in people without a mental disorder.

    hedonism Pleasure-seeking behavior. Contrast with anhedonia.

    5-HIAA (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid) A major metabolite of serotonin, a biogenic amine found in the brain and other organs. Functional deficits of serotonin in the central nervous system have been implicated in certain types of major mood disorders, and particularly in suicide and impulsivity.

    hippocampus Olfactory brain; a sea-horse¾shaped structure located within the brain that is an important part of the limbic system. The hippocampus is involved in some aspects of memory, in the control of the autonomic functions, and in emotional expression.

    hyperacusis Inordinate sensitivity to sounds; it may be on an emotional or an organic basis.

    hypersomnia Excessive sleepiness, as evidenced by prolonged nocturnal sleep, difficulty maintaining an alert awake state during the day, or undesired daytime sleep episodes. ideas of reference The feeling that casual incidents and external events have a particular and unusual meaning that is specific to the person. This is to be distinguished from a delusion of reference, in which there is a belief that is held with delusional conviction

    hypnagogic Referring to the semiconscious state immediately preceding sleep; may include hallucinations that are of no pathological significance.

    hypnopompic Referring to the state immediately preceding awakening; may include hallucinations that are of no pathological significance.

    I

    id In Freudian theory, the part of the personality that is the unconscious source of unstructured desires and drives. See also ego; superego.

    idealization A mental mechanism in which the person attributes exaggeratedly positive qualities to the self or others.

    ideas of reference Incorrect interpretations of casual incidents and external events as having direct reference to oneself. May reach sufficient intensity to constitute delusions.

    identification A defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, by which one patterns oneself after some other person. Identification plays a major role in the development of one's personality and specifically of the superego. To be differentiated from imitation or role modeling, which is a conscious process.

    idiot savant A person with gross mental retardation who nonetheless is capable of performing certain remarkable feats in sharply circumscribed intellectual areas, such as calendar calculation or puzzle solving.

    illusion A misperception or misinterpretation of a real external stimulus, such as hearing the rustling of leaves as the sound of voices. See also hallucination.

    imprinting A term in ethology referring to a process similar to rapid learning or behavioral patterning that occurs at critical points in very early stages of animal development. The extent to which imprinting occurs in human development has not been established.

    inappropriate affect An affect type that represents an unusual affective expression that does not match with the content of what is being said or thought.

    incoherence Speech or thinking that is essentially incomprehensible to others because words or phrases are joined together without a logical or meaningful connection. This disturbance occurs within clauses, in contrast to derailment, in which the disturbance is between clauses. This has sometimes been referred to as "word salad" to convey the degree of linguistic disorganization. Mildly ungrammatical constructions or idiomatic usages characteristic of particular regional or cultural backgrounds, lack of education, or low intelligence should not be considered incoherence. The term is generally not applied when there is evidence that the disturbance in speech is due to an aphasia.

    incorporation A primitive defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, in which the psychic representation of a person, or parts of the person, is figuratively ingested.

    individuation A process of differentiation, the end result of which is development of the individual personality that is separate and distinct from all others.

    indoleamine One of a group of biogenic amines (e.g., serotonin) that contains a five-membered, nitrogen-containing indole ring and an amine group within its chemical structure. inhibition Behavioral evidence of an unconscious defense against forbidden instinctual drives; may interfere with or restrict specific activities.

    insomnia A subjective complaint of difficulty falling or staying asleep or poor sleep quality. Types of insomnia include:

    initial insomnia Difficulty in falling asleep.

    instinct An inborn drive. The primary human instincts include self-preservation, sexuality, and according to some proponents the death instinct, of which aggression is one manifestation.

    integration The useful organization and incorporation of both new and old data, experience, and emotional capacities into the personality. Also refers to the organization and amalgamation of functions at various levels of psychosexual development.

    intellectualization A mental mechanism in which the person engages in excessive abstract thinking to avoid confrontation with conflicts or disturbing feelings.

    intersex condition A condition in which an individual shows intermingling, in various degrees, of the characteristics of each sex, including physical form, reproductive organs, and sexual behavior.

    introspection Self-observation; examination of one's feelings, often as a result of psychotherapy.

    introversion Preoccupation with oneself and accompanying reduction of interest in the outside world. Contrast to extraversion.

    isolation A defense mechanism operating unconsciously central to obsessive-compulsive phenomena in which the affect is detached from an idea and rendered unconscious, leaving the conscious idea colorless and emotionally neutral.

    K

    Klinefelter's syndrome Chromosomal defect in males in which there is an extra X chromosome; manifestations may include underdeveloped testes, physical feminization, sterility, and mental retardation.

    koro A culture specific syndrome of China involving fear of retraction of penis into abdomen with the belief that this will lead to death.

    L

    la belle indifférence Literally, "beautiful indifference." Seen in certain patients with conversion disorders who show an inappropriate lack of concern about their disabilities. labile Rapidly shifting (as applied to emotions); unstable.

    labile affect An affect type that indicates abnormal sudden rapid shifts in affect.

    latah A culture specific syndrome of Southeast Asia involving startle-induced disorganization, hypersuggestibility, automatic obedience, and echopraxia.

    latent content The hidden (i.e., unconscious) meaning of thoughts or actions, especially in dreams or fantasies. In dreams, it is expressed in distorted, disguised, condensed, and symbolic form.

    learned helplessness A condition in which a person attempts to establish and maintain contact with another by adopting a helpless, powerless stance.

    lethologica Temporary inability to remember a proper noun or name.

    libido The psychic drive or energy usually associated with the sexual instinct. (Sexual is used here in the broad sense to include pleasure and love-object seeking.)

    locus coeruleus A small area in the brain stem containing norepinephrine neurons that is considered to be a key brain center for anxiety and fear.

    long-term memory The final phase of memory in which information storage may last from hours to a lifetime.

    loosening of associations A disturbance of thinking shown by speech in which ideas shift from one subject to another that is unrelated or minimally related to the first. Statements that lack a meaningful relationship may be juxtaposed, or speech may shift suddenly from one frame of reference to another. The speaker gives no indication of being aware of the disconnectedness, contradictions, or illogicality of speech.

    M

    macropsia The visual perception that objects are larger than they actually are.

    magical thinking A conviction that thinking equates with doing. Occurs in dreams in children, in primitive peoples, and in patients under a variety of conditions. Characterized by lack of realistic relationship between cause and effect.

    manifest content The remembered content of a dream or fantasy, as contrasted with latent content, which is concealed and distorted.

    masochism Pleasure derived from physical or psychological pain inflicted on oneself either by oneself or by others. It is called sexual masochism and classified as a paraphilia when it is consciously sought as a part of the sexual act or as a prerequisite to sexual gratification. It is the converse of sadism, although the two tend to coexist in the same person.

    memory consolidation The physical and psychological changes that take place as the brain organizes and restructures information that may become a permanent part of memory.

    mental retardation A major group of disorders of infancy, childhood, or adolescence characterized by intellectual functioning that is significantly below average (IQ of 70 or below), manifested before the age of 18 by impaired adaptive functioning (below expected performance for age in such areas as social or daily living skills, communication, and self-sufficiency). Different levels of severity are recognized: an IQ level of 50/55 to 70 is Mild; an IQ level of 35/40 to 50/55 is Moderate; an IQ level of 20/25 to 35/40 is Severe; an IQ level below 20/25 is Profound.

    MHPG (3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol) A major metabolite of brain norepinephrine excreted in urine.

    magical thinking The erroneous belief that one's thoughts, words, or actions will cause or prevent a specific outcome in some way that defies commonly understood laws of cause and effect. Magical thinking may be a part of normal child development.

    micropsia The visual perception that objects are smaller than they actually are.

    middle insomnia Awakening in the middle of the night followed by eventually falling back to sleep, but with difficulty.

    mirroring 1) The empathic responsiveness of the parent to the developing child's grandiose-exhibitionistic needs. Parental expressions of delight in the child's activities signal that the child's wishes and experiences are accepted as legitimate. This teaches the child which of his or her potential qualities are most highly esteemed and valued. Mirroring validates the child as to who he or she is and affirms his or her worth. The process transforms archaic aims to realizable aims, and it determines in part the content of the self-assessing, self-monitoring functions and their relationships to the rest of the personality. The content of the superego is the residue of the mirroring experience. 2) A technique in psychodrama in which another person in the group plays the role of the patient, who watches the enactment as if gazing into a mirror. The first person may exaggerate one or more aspects of the patient's behavior. Following the portrayal, the patient is usually encouraged to comment on what he or she has observed.

    mood A pervasive and sustained emotion that colors the perception of the world. Common examples of mood include depression, elation, anger, and anxiety. In contrast to affect, which refers to more fluctuating changes in emotional "weather," mood refers to a more pervasive and sustained emotional "climate." Types of mood include: dysphoric, elevated, euthymic, expansive, irritable.

    mood-congruent psychotic features Delusions or hallucinations whose content is entirely consistent with the typical themes of a depressed or manic mood. If the mood is depressed, the content of the delusions or hallucinations would involve themes of personal inadequacy, guilt, disease, death, nihilism, or deserved punishment. The content of the delusion may include themes of persecution if these are based on self-derogatory~ concepts such as deserved punishment. If the mood is manic, the content of the delusions or hallucinations would involve themes of inflated worth, power, knowledge, or identity, or a special relationship to a deity or a famous person. The content of the delusion may include themes of persecution if these are based on concepts such as inflated worth or deserved punishment.

    mood-incongruent psychotic features Delusions or hallucinations whose content is not consistent with the typical themes of a depressed or manic mood. In the case of depression, the delusions or hallucinations would not involve themes of personal inadequacy, guilt, disease, death, nihilism, or deserved punishment. In the case of mania, the delusions or hallucinations would not involve themes of inflated worth, power, knowledge, or identity, or a special relationship to a deity or a famous person. Examples of mood-incongruent psychotic features include persecutory delusions (without self-derogatory~ or grandiose content), thought insertion, thought broadcasting, and delusions of being controlled whose content has no apparent relationship to any of the themes listed above.

    N

    negative symptoms Most commonly refers to a group of symptoms characteristic of schizophrenia that include loss of fluency and spontaneity of verbal expression, impaired ability to focus or sustain attention on a particular task, difficulty in initiating or following through on tasks, impaired ability to experience pleasure to form emotional attachment to others, and blunted affect.

    negativism Opposition or resistance, either covert or overt, to outside suggestions or advice. May be seen in schizophrenia.

    neologism In psychiatry, a new word or condensed combination of several words coined by a person to express a highly complex idea not readily understood by others; seen in schizophrenia and organic mental disorders.

    neurotic disorder A mental disorder in which the predominant disturbance is a distressing symptom or group of symptoms that one considers unacceptable and alien to one's personality. There is no marked loss of reality testing ; behavior does not actively violate gross social norms, although it may be quite disabling. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment and is not limited to a mild transitory reaction to stress. There is no demonstrable organic etiology.

    nihilistic delusion The delusion of nonexistence of the self or part of the self, or of some object in external reality.

    nystagmus Involuntary rhythmic movements of the eyes that consist of small-amplitude~ rapid tremors in one direction and a larger, slower, recurrent sweep in the opposite direction. Nystagmus may be horizontal, vertical, or rotary.

    O

    object relations The emotional bonds between one person and another, as contrasted with interest in and love for the self; usually described in terms of capacity for loving and reacting appropriately to others. Melanie Klein is generally credited with founding the British object-relations school.

    obsession Recurrent and persistent thought, impulse, or image experienced as intrusive and distressing. Recognized as being excessive and unreasonable even though it is the product of one's mind. This thought, impulse, or image cannot be expunged by logic or reasoning.

    oedipal stage Overlapping some with the phallic stage, this phase (ages 4 to 6) represents a time of inevitable conflict between the child and parents. The child must desexualize the relationship to both parents in order to retain affectionate kinship with both of them. The process is accomplished by the internalization of the images of both parents, thereby giving more definite shape to the child's personality. With this internalization largely completed, the regulation of self-esteem and moral behavior comes from within.

    Oedipus complex Attachment of the child to the parent of the opposite sex, accompanied by envious and aggressive feelings toward the parent of the same sex. These feelings are largely repressed (i.e., made unconscious) because of the fear of displeasure or punishment by the parent of the same sex. In its original use, the term applied only to the boy or man.

    olfactory hallucination A hallucination involving the perception of odor, such as of burning rubber or decaying fish.

    ontogenetic Pertaining to the development of the individual.

    operant conditioning (instrumental conditioning) A process by which the results of the person's behavior determine whether the behavior is more or less likely to occur in the future.

    oral stage The earliest of the stages of infantile psychosexual development, lasting from birth to 12 months or longer. Usually subdivided into two stages: the oral erotic, relating to the pleasurable experience of sucking; and the oral sadistic, associated with aggressive biting. Both oral eroticism and sadism continue into adult life in disguised and sublimated forms, such as the character traits of demandingness or pessimism. Oral conflict, as a general and pervasive influence, might underlie the psychological determinants of addictive disorders, depression, and some functional psychotic disorders.

    orientation Awareness of one's self in relation to time, place, and person.

    overcompensation A conscious or unconscious process in which a real or imagined physical or psychological deficit generates exaggerated correction. Concept introduced by Adler.

    overdetermination The concept of multiple unconscious causes of an emotional reaction or symptom.

    overvalued idea An unreasonable and sustained belief that is maintained with less than delusional intensity (i.e., the person is able to acknowledge the possibility that the belief may not be true). The belief is not one that is ordinarily accepted by other members of the person's culture or subculture

    P

    panic attacks Discrete periods of sudden onset of intense apprehension, fearfulness, or terror, often associated with feelings of impending doom. During these attacks there are symptoms such as shortness of breath or smothering sensations; palpitations, pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate; chest pain or discomfort; choking; and fear of going crazy or losing control. Panic attacks may be unexpected (uncued), in which the onset of the attack is not associated with a situational trigger and instead occurs "out of the blue"; situationally bound, in which the panic attack almost invariably occurs immediately on exposure to, or in anticipation of, a situational trigger ("cue"); and situationally predisposed, in which the panic attack is more likely to occur on exposure to a situational trigger but is not invariably associated with it.

    paranoid ideation Ideation, of less than delusional proportions, involving suspiciousness or the belief that one is being harassed, persecuted, or unfairly treated.

    parasomnia Abnormal behavior or physiological events occurring during sleep or sleep-wake transitions.

    persecutory delusion A delusion in which the central theme is that one (or someone to whom one is close) is being attacked, harassed, cheated, persecuted, or conspired against.

    perseveration Tendency to emit the same verbal or motor response again and again to varied stimuli.

    personality Enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself. Personality traits are prominent aspects of personality that are exhibited in a wide range of important social and personal contexts. Only when personality traits are inflexible and maladaptive and cause either significant functional impairment or subjective distress do they constitute a Personality Disorder.

    phallic stage The period, from about 21/2 to 6 years, during which sexual interest, curiosity, and pleasurable experience in boys center on the penis, and in girls, to a lesser extent, the clitoris.

    phobia A persistent, irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation (the phobic stimulus) that results in a compelling desire to avoid it. This often leads either to avoidance of the phobic stimulus or to enduring it with dread.

    piblokto A culture specific syndrome of Eskimos involving attacks of screaming, crying, and running naked through the snow

    preconscious Thoughts that are not in immediate awareness but that can be recalled by conscious effort.

    pregenital In psychoanalysis, refers to the period of early childhood before the genitals have begun to exert the predominant influence in the organization or patterning of sexual behavior. Oral and anal influences predominate during this period.

    pressured speech Speech that is increased in amount, accelerated, and difficult or impossible to interrupt. Usually it is also loud and emphatic. Frequently the person talks without any social stimulation and may continue to talk even though no one is listening.

    prevalence Frequency of a disorder, used particularly in epidemiology to denote the total number of cases existing within a unit of population at a given time or over a specified period.

    primary gain The relief from emotional conflict and the freedom from anxiety achieved by a defense mechanism. Contrast with secondary gain.

    primary process In psychoanalytic theory, the generally unorganized mental activity characteristic of the unconscious. This activity is marked by the free discharge of energy and excitation without regard to the demands of environment, reality, or logic.

    prodrome An early or premonitory sign or symptom of a disorder

    projection A defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, in which what is emotionally unacceptable in the self is unconsciously rejected and attributed (projected) to others.

    projective identification A term introduced by Melanie Klein to refer to the unconscious process of projection of one or more parts of the self or of the internal object into another person (such as the mother). What is projected may be an intolerable, painful, or dangerous part of the self or object (the bad object). It may also be a valued aspect of the self or object (the good object) that is projected into the other person for safekeeping. The other person is changed by the projection and is dealt with as though he or she is in fact characterized by the aspects of the self that have been projected.

    projective tests Psychological diagnostic tests in which the test material is unstructured so that any response will reflect a projection of some aspect of the subject's underlying personality and psychopathology

    prosopagnosia Inability to recognize familiar faces that is not explained by defective visual acuity or reduced consciousness or alertness.

    pseudocyesis Included in DSM-IV as one of the somatoform disorders. It is characterized by a false belief of being pregnant and by the occurrence of signs of being pregnant, such as abdominal enlargement, breast engorgement, and labor pains.

    pseudodementia A syndrome in which dementia is mimicked or caricatured by a functional psychiatric illness. Symptoms and response of mental status examination questions are similar to those found in verified cases of dementia. In pseudodementia, the chief diagnosis to be considered in the differential is depression in an older person vs. cognitive deterioration on the basis of organic brain disease.

    psychomotor agitation Excessive motor activity associated with a feeling of inner tension. When severe, agitation may involve sho
     
  3. Guest

    You would know I'd skim to the bottom before reading all through it...yuck.. definitely a word I didn't need to know! :eek:
     
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