Hi Midwest Mom and all, Regarding adoption, BiPolar (BP) and Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) -- We dealt with the physical and psychiatric disorders in our adopted difficult child first, long before considering Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD).(Our difficult child was diagnosis with mood disorder not otherwise specified,probably BiPolar (BP).) I didn't want to consider attachment issues in difficult child because he seemed well-attached. (Also, when I speak of Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) here, I don't mean full-blown Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD), but attachment issues -- grief, shame and loss -- which can inform the anger of bipolar.) One day I got a flyer in the mail for a conference on pediatric BiPolar (BP). I noticed that Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) was subtitled under it. Since then I have learned that Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) issues can accompany a mood disorder, even in "biological" children, because of the effects that a child's, even a baby's, mood disorder can have on attachment. For example, my baby difficult child raging for a solid year unless he was being held. The child's temperament also affects how he looks at life's issues (glass half full or empty). My son has a very negative, anxious outlook on life because of his BiPolar (BP), and possibly because of his inherited temperament in general. This has informed his outlook on his relinquishment -- negative and anxious. Regarding Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD),the age of the child really is irrelevant. Genetics and temperament play a much bigger part, along with environmental factors like relinquishment or extended foster care. This is supported by the latest adoption research. Lots to think about.